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Competency C:
Articulate the importance of designing programs and services supportive of diversity, inclusion, and equity for clientele and employees.

Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion:

The Heart of my Approach to Librarianship

Section 1 of 4:

An Introduction to What Competency C Means to Me and to Library and Information Science


          Understanding the differences, nuances, and relatedness of the terms “equity”, “diversity”, and “inclusion” is crucial in providing supportive library programming and services to patrons and staff. Equity is defined as, "Justice according to natural law or right, specifically: freedom from bias or favoritism" (Merriam-Webster, 2021). Examining that in greater detail, Merriam-Webster explains that “Equity is often related to justice or proportional fairness...Equality differs from equity in that it relates more to sameness or equal distribution. In society, equal treatment does not always produce an equitable result” (Merriam-Webster, 2021). Diversity is defined as, “The condition of having or being composed of differing elements: VARIETY, especially: the inclusion of people of different races, cultures, etc. in a group or organization” (Merriam-Webster, 2021). Inclusion means, “The act or practice of including and accommodating people who have historically been excluded (as because of their race, gender, sexuality, or ability)” (Merriam-Webster, 2021). Another important concept to understand is that of whiteness. Whiteness is “a dominant cultural space with enormous political significance, with the purpose to keep others on the margin” (CARE, 2021).


Introduction to Competency C:

          Designing library programs and services for patrons and staff of diverse cultures, affiliations, orientations, races, genders, and abilities, especially for those in historically excluded groups, is of paramount importance to libraries acting as centers of equity for their communities. Those who belong to historically excluded groups are often struggling with issues of inequity. Examples of these issues can be: discrimination against People of Color, the LGBTQ+ community, or those who use assistive devices for mobility purposes. Discrimination can manifest itself as things like landlords refusing to rent properties, employers not offering positions, or schools only accepting white-centric hairstyles. Discriminatory practices can lead to many peoples facing issues of inequity, such as a lack of permanent housing, a lack of stable income, or trauma inflicted by what should have been a trust-worthy authority. 

          Libraries can act as centers of equity to their patrons by actively working to provide information, resources, and assistance to those who have faced discrimination, those who have not been welcomed and included, and those who are having to fight for equitable treatment. To effectively represent and provide services to diverse peoples, the voices of the libraries' staff, administration, policy makers, collections, and programming must also be composed of diverse peoples.


My Personal Understanding of Competency C:

          To more effectively design supportive and equitable programs and services that embrace the diversity and inclusion of patrons and staff, a deep understanding of why these needs are historically not being met is imperative. This understanding begins with acknowledging that many institutions in the U.S., including libraries, operate within and perpetuate oppressive policies, systems, and mindsets. Library policies and practices need to be re-examined through a lens that works to dismantle oppressive systems internally. The people holding that lens need to have diverse voices and identities. Creating safe, welcoming, and accepting spaces for all peoples, not just peoples viewing the world from a privileged perspective, is crucial to libraries truly being of service to the world around them.


Why Competency C is Important to Me as a Professional:

          Competency C means a lot to me for a variety of reasons. I will start with this disclosure: I identify as, and am perceived as, white. I am from two cities, both of which have predominantly Black populations. I have had a front row seat for my entire life as my Friends of Color, coworkers, chosen family, and Community Members of Color have dealt with racism from white community members and issues of whiteness every single day. These issues range from racist microaggressions from white coworkers, to the steep emotional repercussions of living in a deeply racially segregated city, to being largely underrepresented in government, to dealing with racist behaviors and treatment from white library staff. I will be honest, it makes me furious. The anger I experience on behalf of my Community Members of Color is nothing compared to what they deal with, and I represent and speak on behalf of only myself. I am determined to make more informed, inclusive, supportive, and joy-filled library spaces for historically excluded peoples, especially for People of Color. My friends and my community deserve better than what I have witnessed.

          I am comfortable disclosing that I am a member of the LGBTQ+ community, the genderqueer community, and that I have a disability. I have experienced library systems as both a patron and as staff, that did not work to support the diversity of their communities, or implement inclusive practices, or have a baseline understanding of the concept of equity. In these environments, what was practiced instead was maintenance of a status quo. I have felt unsafe in workspaces as a woman, an LGBTQ+ person, and a genderqueer person, to say nothing of the constant fear of losing my job due to having a disability. Feeling unsafe is a long way from feeling welcomed, accepted, and embraced for who I am, and for my differences from the majority. I love libraries. I grew up in them and have worked in them for years. I am pursuing my MLIS so that I can better continue to do so. Ensuring that any library I am involved with is designing programs and services that are supportive of diversity, inclusion, and equity for patrons and staff is the beating heart of my professional life.


Why Competency C is Important to the Profession as a Whole:

          Libraries are for everyone (Hafuboti, 2020). In a country and culture that struggles with inequity, intolerance, and exclusion, libraries must actively work to better serve the patrons, staff, and communities whom are affected by these issues the most. To survive, let alone be beloved elements of communities, libraries must implement action-plans that continue to evolve the profession as leaders and models of equitable and welcoming services. The role of libraries continues to grow, and it is a profession well suited to adapting to the community’s needs.


What Competency in Designing Programs and Services that Support Diversity, Inclusion, and Equity for Patrons and Staff Looks Like to Me:

          When I think of what a library would look like that strives to provide equity, to bring accurate and positive representation to patrons and staff, and welcomes and embraces historically excluded peoples, I see many things. I see signage outside the entryway with hand lettering done in rainbow colors to show support of the LGBTQ+ community. I see libraries taking all of the Covid precautions they can, to protect their communities, especially those with disabilities and chronic illnesses, while being open and clear in their communications about such. I see signage at a height that can easily be read by all (children, adults, and those who may be mobility-assisted).

          I see staff members of varying gender presentations and races, with visible tattoos or assistive devices. I see signage and information provided in predominant languages in the community, and in the same presentation and size as the English text. I see a highly visible sign on the wall with lines of text in many different languages that instructs patrons to call a translation line for assistance. I see signage that encourages patrons to connect to the library’s free wifi via their website, 24/7. I see artwork featured in the library by patrons and staff that adds local pride to the building. I see the library’s rooftop used as an outdoor space for patrons with a food-producing, rooftop, garden. I see the checkout desk at a height accessible to those who may be mobility assisted. I see a well-organized table by the entrance with flyers, business cards, and information about community events. I see a library offering passive programming ideas that benefit those with social anxiety, like go-at-your-own-pace art projects. I see sensory-sensitive programming for those on the Autism spectrum, or for those who thrive in calm and soothing environments. I see Drag Queen Storytimes that teach joy, inclusivity, gender-fluidity, and acceptance to all who attend. I see banners of support for the Black Lives Matter movement. I see book talk programs for teens with groundbreaking authors like Jason Reynolds or Jaqueline Woodson. I see libraries providing programs and services that are informed, supportive, and inclusive.

Section 2 of 4:

The Discussion of My Evidence

Evidence A:






How and Why I Created Evidence A:

          As my “Evidence A”, I am presenting a website that I created for my “Issues in Academic Libraries” course. My website is called “Diversifying the Library Sciences”. It discusses different angles as to why diversifying the library sciences is so vitally important. On the site, I present materials I have created that address the effects of whiteness on First Nations and Indigenous Peoples, on the Black community, on immigrant communities, and on many different peoples.

The Process of Creating Evidence A:

          When I was creating the website (hereto referred to as “Evidence A”) I wanted to incorporate multimedia formats. There are videos, photos, and synopsis of academic work I have done relating to issues of equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) as well as links to documents, resources, and relevant information about activism work I have done.

          I organized the presentation site to begin with a landing page. Here I have a video where I discuss EDI in libraries and in my own life, as well as explaining the importance of libraries acting as centers of equity to their patrons and communities. Next, I present a section titled “My academic work”. It contains highlights from my coursework that pertain to issues of equity, diversity, and inclusion. Then I present a section called “Websites I have created”. I’ve created numerous sites relating to these same issues. I give a brief synopsis of each, as well as links to the sites. Lastly, I created a section of Evidence A called “My activism work”. It explores some of the activism work that I have completed over the past several years pertaining to EDI. I provide links where available, and include photos.


Where Evidence A Covers Equity:

          In the academic work section of Evidence A, I included a research paper I wrote, titled “How Information Professionals Can Act as Providers of Equity”. I highlight a LibGuide that I created, as well as a presentation about why I created it, titled, “Using the Civil Rights Digital Library database”. I designed it for activists fighting for civil rights in the U.S. who would like to use historical data to back up their efforts, or to fact check information. I also included a proposal I wrote for equitable library programming improvements.

Where Evidence A Covers Diversity:

          In the section of Evidence A that presents my websites, diversity is specifically examined in several websites I have created. My site, Children's Non-Print Resources from the Library explores unique resources (which are not books) that public libraries offer to kids. I approach the resources I wanted to feature through specific lenses relating to diversity, which I discuss in the site’s introduction. On my site, Books with AMAZING illustrations! I feature and promote diverse voices in characters and creators, so that children (and all readers) are provided with positive and accurate representation. 

Where Evidence A Covers Inclusion:

          In the academic work section of Evidence A, I present a Book Talk that I did, titled, “What happens when people do (and don’t) see themselves positively represented in the media that they enjoy?”. I also present a site I created called Cultural Awareness and Exploration Text Set for: Ms. Marvel Vol. 1: No Normal”. It is a curated collection of supporting material related to Ms. Marvel Vol. 1: No Normal that explores issues of representation and intersectionality.


Parts of Evidence A That Cover Both Equity and Inclusion:

          Some of my websites that I included in Evidence A are:

          Equity, Diversity, Inclusion, and White Privilege Study in Children's Books: Within this website I provide definitions and examples of issues relating to equity, diversity, inclusion and white privilege in children's books. I explore what the experts have to say, dive into views on children's books from around the world and closer to home, as well as provide a self reflection. I provide an "Additional Resources" tab for more information relating to issues of inequity, marginalization, and popular culture. 

          A Children's Librarian's 12-Month Programming Plan: This site delves into my approach for creating programming, my commitment and drive to create equity through public libraries, my programming assessment tools, and my passion for my work in libraries. I approach all of my programming from a place of inclusivity and awareness, which I explain at length in the criteria I created to evaluate library programming with. 

          The section of Evidence A pertaining to my activism work contains items that relate directly to issues of equity and inclusion for survivors of sexual violence. Sexual violence affects womxn at a much higher rate, but can affect those of any gender (APIGBV, n.d.). The included items were: Guest Speaker and Activist for Sexual Assault Awareness and Reform, Participating in Womxn's March and LGBT+ Pride Protests, Panelist speaker at the Mayor of Baton Rouge's Listening Session addressing Law Enforcement Officials with how they can better respond to sexual violence and handle rape cases more effectively. I also created handout materials for law enforcement in order to help them better work with survivors of sexual violence. My handout included a recommended reading section. I was a guest speaker for the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals Regional Task Force Meeting, addressing how medical and social work professionals can better recognize and assists survivors of sexual violence and human trafficking. I created handout materials for DHH to help them recognize and assist survivors. I was featured in STAR's Truth Out Loud workshop and video series, addressing rape culture and how the public can better interact with survivors of sexual violence.


Evidence B:







How and Why I Created Evidence B:

          As my “Evidence B”, I am presenting a term paper that I wrote for my “Library Services for Racially and Ethnically Diverse Communities” course. My paper is called “How Public Libraries Can Be Used to Cut Costs and Provide More Sustainable Levels of Equity to Patrons Who Are Struggling Financially” (hereto referred to as “Evidence B”). This paper examines considerations for designing library services for patrons struggling with inequity and financial insecurity. In the term paper, I provide a literature review regarding services patrons want, information on how to reach patrons, culturally inclusive practices, and what works when designing services to bolster equity through financial savings. The paper concludes several findings from the literature and my experiences. They are that patrons struggling with permanent housing and patrons who have immigrated stand to benefit significantly from library services, and that it is up to individual libraries to step up and provide services in an inclusive and supportive manner. 

The Process of Creating Evidence B:

          I wanted to focus on how in inequitable cultures, many peoples do not have the same opportunities, agency, or resources as those in power. This inequity is due to the harmful practices of those in power which perpetuate systems of oppression against peoples due to a perceived difference from those in power (such as race, gender, sexuality, physical and mental abilities, immigration status, housing status, and many other factors). In a culture that provides less equity to many, the library can act as a lifeline to help turn the tide. Evidence B acknowledges that not all peoples in historically excluded groups are struggling with financial insecurity, and that any person can be struggling with this. 

          I had been researching and writing on inequity and libraries extensively over the course of the semester, and to create Evidence B I pulled from that work. That work included my examinations of Holt’s article, Fitting Library Services into the Lives of the Poor, a study by Moore and Henderson titled, "Like Precious Gold": Recreation in the Lives of Low-Income Committed Couples, Weiss’s article, Libraries and the Digital Divide, Mestre’s article, Librarians Working with Diverse Populations: What Impact Does Cultural Competency Training Have on Their Efforts?, Cardwell et al.’s article, Anti-Oppressive Composition Pedagogies, Katopol’s article, Stereotype Threat and the Senior Library Patron, and Maar et al.’s article, Co-creating Simulated Cultural Communication Scenarios with Indigenous Animators: An Evaluation of Innovative Clinical Cultural Safety Curriculum.


Where Evidence B Covers Equity:

          Evidence B asserts that patrons struggling with issues of permanent housing may be dealing with significant issues of inequity and stand to benefit substantially from free library services. These services can be as basic as a safe and clean public bathroom, access to water fountains, and climate control, and as advanced as routine partnerships between libraries and social workers, recreation options, programming for all ages, internet and printing services, job services, resume services, and summer meals programs. Many libraries are even doing away with fines to enhance access to materials for low income patrons and families. 

          Evidence B also asserts that patrons who have immigrated to the U.S. may be struggling with issues of inequity and stand to benefit substantially from free library services. These can range from free ESL classes, to a safe and free community space, to information on legal representation, to library outreach to day laborers, to care-backpacks sent to children in immigration detention camps. 


Where Evidence B Covers Diversity:

          I have a section of my discussion in Evidence B titled “Reaching Our Patrons/The Words We Use”. It addresses how librarianship is a historically white-dominated profession. I assert that to truly welcome and seek out diverse voices in librarianship, the tone, audience, and content of communications should be welcoming and diverse.  

Where Evidence B Covers Inclusion:

          Evidence B also discusses Cardwell et al.’s article, Anti-Oppressive Composition Pedagogies. It examines the power of everyday language and how it can be used to “un-teach '' oppressive systems. The article examined how instructors and students think about and use language in all aspects of their courses: from content, to how assignments are created, to grammar rules and grading practices. These elements were evaluated to recognize and root out influences and structures of white supremacy, sexism, racism, ableism, queerphobia and other oppressive structures (Cardwell et al., 2019). Recognizing that systems of oppression shape and influence our education system and our resources is important for libraries to also acknowledge and actively work to dismantle when creating library services. Cardwell et al.’s article acknowledged and actively worked to change these elements in order to become a more accepting and welcoming space for historically excluded peoples. Evidence B highlights the importance of how we communicate with one another, the language we use, and how deeply it can affect us. 


Section 3 of 4:

How Creating the Evidence Helped Me Gain Expertise in Competency C


How Creating Evidence A Helped Me Gain Competency in the Area of EDI:

          The process of creating Evidence A helped me to better organize the work I’ve done, the events I have seen unfold, and my own experiences. It also helped me to further explore issues of ethics, my own identity, and the possibility of potential progress in libraries relating to equitable, diverse, and inclusive practices. 

How Creating Evidence A Changed My Way of Thinking on Competency C:

          While building and completing Evidence A, I realized I had a lot of material from my own background and studies to work with, and even more ideas. I came up with the concept of eventually creating a consulting position for myself, where I can be hired as a contract employee to go into library systems and evaluate, create, and implement system wide action-plans to help remove whiteness, patriarchal, and heteronormative based oppression systems and to create individualized, holistic, approaches to building safe, welcoming, and accepting libraries for all peoples. I already have several pages of notes for myself on how to implement a consulting position. I then evolved that concept further. I realized that a consulting position would require me to travel extensively and to continuously immerse myself in environments that were not exceeding in issues of EDI. These two things are very stressful for me as a person. I am always learning, especially in regards to taking better care of myself. Instead of creating a career where I would always be stressed, I am currently contemplating how to turn my work into a product (be it a course, learning system, etc.) that library systems could purchase from me and implement on their own, in-house. I am considering ethical issues as well. I am not certain that I am comfortable with trying to make a profit off of my work in EDI, or that as a person who experiences white privilege I have any right to, or that library systems who are already showing an ineptitude towards EDI would effectively use the tools and information that I would provide.


Why I Chose to Feature Evidence A and How Evidence A Shows Competency:

          Evidence A was a learning and growing experience for me. I believe I will always be learning. I will always be improving and expanding my knowledge and perspectives. I will never be done. Creating Evidence A gave me a firmer grasp of what I am capable of in the arena of EDI, website development, and in my own personal development. Examining and consolidating the past two years of my academic work, and even my activism work, into Evidence A allowed me to feel more confident in my ability to create professional products. I have also developed and honed my website creating abilities and skills over the past two years in this graduate program, and I feel that Evidence A showcases my abilities to create a wide array of websites. 

          I also made the active decision to begin Evidence A with a video of myself providing a frank and honest discussion about my own identities and goals for the future of librarianship. I very much value my privacy, and being on camera or discussing my own life has never been something I have been comfortable with. I chose to push myself out of my comfort zone because EDI in libraries is so important to me. I wanted to be able to speak to my viewer and tell them why EDI matters to me and to libraries. Evidence A shows growth, passion, a willingness to evolve, extensive research, and a heartfelt focus on equity, diversity, and inclusion in libraries. 

How Creating Evidence B Helped Me Gain Competency in the Area of EDI:

          In creating Evidence B, my competence relating to EDI in libraries was elevated. This elevation was due to forming a deeper understanding of the importance of welcoming and inclusive communications and practices, of recreation options, of services for patrons who have immigrated or who struggle with permanent housing, and how additional services should be created. Libraries are truly in a position to step up and act as centers of equity for their patrons and communities, but it is up to libraries to make the effort. 


How Creating Evidence B Changed My Way of Thinking on Competency C:

          Completing Evidence B really emphasized to me that patrons struggling with issues of permanent housing, and patrons who have immigrated to the U.S., both stand to benefit significantly from free library services, and that it is largely up to individual libraries to make the effort to reach out and provide these services in an inclusive, supportive, and welcoming manner.

          I also learned in more detail that what a patron would spend on costs like membership fees, wifi, food and groceries with no assistance or resources, health and wellness services without assistance, housing and tenant issues, financial consultations, career counseling, a lack of information on services provided to immigrants or those previously incarcerated, translation services, supportive programming, educational resources and professional level research resources is staggering. Libraries can provide many of these services at no cost or can direct patrons to those who can. The personal funds patrons would have spent on services outside of the library are now free to be used for other things, at the patrons’ discretion. Having disposable or reallocated funds can help patrons make more equitable choices when spending them.


Why I Chose to Feature Evidence B and How Evidence B Shows Competency:

          I chose to include Evidence B as it takes a very hands-on, action-plan oriented approach to what libraries can do to save their patrons money and therefore free up funds for patrons to spend how they want. This approach can help to provide more equitable lifestyle choices to patrons. In inequitable cultures, historically excluded peoples are more likely to face financial difficulty due to discrimination (Ramachandra & Braunschweiger, 2020). I strongly believe that joy and recreation should be important parts of a life, and library experiences should enhance that. Evidence B focuses heavily on research tackling financial insecurity, recreation, and libraries. Evidence B provides academic sources, research, and plans that libraries can use when designing programs and services supportive of diversity, inclusion, and equity for clientele and employees. 

Coursework That Has Prepared Me for Designing Programs and Services Supportive of Diversity, Inclusion, and Equity for Clientele and Employees:

          Over the course of this MLIS program, I have focused my work and my research on how libraries can help to dismantle systems of oppression. In my ‘Info 200: Information Communities’ course, I wrote a research paper on how information professionals can address a lack of equity and access to natural resources in America and examine their own means to create and provide it to all, acting as a powerful equalizer. In my ‘Info 285: Applied Research Methods’ course, I completed a literature review on how libraries are addressing racism, as well as a proposal for equitable library programming improvements. In my ‘Info 286: Interpersonal Communication Skills for Librarians’ course, I wrote an exploratory essay on how communication styles and language can help dismantle oppressive systems. In my ‘Info 263: Materials for Children’ course, I created a website that studied equity, diversity, inclusion, and white privilege in children's books. In my ‘Info 237: School Library Media Materials’ course, I created a website that examines issues of inclusivity and representation, such as being able to see (or not see) positive representations of oneself in the media they enjoy.


How I Have Changed From the Person I Was Before These Courses, to the Person After, to the Person I Am Now:

          Before I created Evidence A, Evidence B, and this E-portfolio, I knew that ensuring historically excluded peoples felt welcomed and accepted in any library space I was a part of was important to me. Over the course of this MLIS program, especially in the creation of Evidence A and B, I have realized that designing programs and services supportive of diversity, inclusion, and equity is the core of how I approach any project, position, environment, or service within my purview. Now, nearing graduation from my MLIS program and seeking permanent, full-time, employment, I know that in any position I am in, be it as a Children’s Librarian, a Reference Librarian, a Diversity Fellow, a Researcher, or something else, I will bring a strong focus and passion to creating welcoming spaces, programs, and services for those who have been historically excluded. 

What I Have Learned:

          In creating Evidence A, I learned of librarian-in-residence programs that focus on hiring librarians to work on issues of EDI. Discovering that librarians of historically excluded backgrounds are being actively sought out to work on diversifying libraries was thrilling and wonderful for me. Over the course of my life and my career, I’ve experienced significant pushback from employers, coworkers, friends, and family when I am advocating for LGBTQ+ rights, trans rights, the Black Lives Matter movement, and the Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women cause. This pushback has been severely disheartening and upsetting to me. When I was creating Evidence A, I was searching for a librarian-in-residence position that interested me to feature on the site. Discovering numerous postings that were seeking librarians of diverse backgrounds to specifically go into libraries and work to ensure peoples who have historically been excluded were welcomed there almost brought me to tears. As I state in my introductory video on the site, to be sought out, welcomed, and embraced for all of my identities means a lot to me.


Section 4 of 4:

How the Knowledge I Have Gained Will Influence Me in the Future, as an Information Professional


What I Bring to the Position, in Terms of Competency C:

          I create and evaluate my programming and services by asking research-based assessment questions which I have developed relating to equity, diversity, and inclusion. They are: Is this program or service based on the community’s needs and wants? Who designed this program or service? What are their sources and qualifications? Have I spoken to community members or received feedback about the program? Is this program or service inclusive and supportive to historically excluded peoples? Does it include accurate and positive representation of historically excluded peoples? Does this program or service address cultural needs or holidays in the community? Is this program or service accessible to those with disabilities? Is the language used to describe the programming and in the programming itself inclusive and supportive? Is there signage or decor present that promotes inclusivity, support, and acceptance of all peoples? 


How My Learning in EDI Will Contribute to My Professional Competence in the Future:

          I would be a wonderful librarian-in-residence (or librarian in any capacity) who focuses on designing programs and services supportive of diversity, inclusion, and equity because I have a deep understanding of the dynamics of oppression and whiteness, of what it is to feel unsafe and unwelcomed in a space as a member of historically excluded groups, and also of what it is to feel joy within library spaces, of what it means to advocate for a joyful experience in libraries for the queer community, for the Black community, for all of those who may be unsure of their acceptance in a space. Creating Evidence A helped me to further define my knowledge of EDI through an exploration of active job postings and a bolstering of my spirits to see libraries doing the work of social justice, as well as an examination of my own academic work, projects, and activism to demonstrate that my focus on doing the work of social justice remains strong across many facets of my life and goals. Creating Evidence B helped me to further define and expand my knowledge of EDI by examining more deeply the effects that inequity can have on vulnerable populations, on specific ways that libraries can help address inequity, and on the importance of approaching patrons, staff, communities, programming, and services from an inclusive, supportive, and accepting place. My understanding of designing programs and services supportive of diversity, inclusion, and equity, including what I’ve learned about acceptance in library spaces and how I may use that to help libraries become more welcoming and joy-filled, make me an excellent candidate for this position. 

          I am fiercely passionate about making libraries into spaces where future generations will be more welcomed for all of who they are. I want library patrons, staff, and communities to experience more acceptance, understanding, and joy in libraries than ever before. To be sought out and welcomed for my differences, with the professional goal of bettering my workplace and actively making it a more welcoming and accepting space for peoples who have historically been deeply affected by systems of oppression, is one of the best possible outcomes I can think of for my professional life.


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Maar, M., Bessette, N., McGregor, L., Lovelace, A., & Reade, M. (2020). Co-creating simulated cultural communication scenarios with Indigenous animators: An evaluation of innovative clinical cultural safety curriculum. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 7(2382-1205).

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Moore, A. C., & Henderson, K. A. (2018). “Like precious gold”: Recreation in the lives of low-income committed couples.Journal of Leisure Research, 49(1), 46-69.

Ramachandra, K. & Braunschweiger, A. (2020, October 14). Breaking the poverty trap. Human Rights Watch.

Weiss, R. J. (2012). Libraries and the digital divide. Journal of the Library Administration & Management Section, 8(2), 25-47.

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